It is unlikely that humanity would ever be able to boast of cleanliness, if the most ordinary soap did not help him to get rid of sloppiness and dirt. More precisely, small magic bubbles.
What is the feature of soap?
However, soap does not always cope with stains. Although soot, for example, which you can’t wash with ordinary water, is quite easily eliminated. You can check. As soon as you pick up the soap, the soot itself will be “washed” into the sink. And here, as you know, the secret lies not in those wonderful aromas that are inherent in any modern detergent, but in something else. But why? In order to answer this question, you need to take a closer look at the soap suds and think carefully – what it consists of, what is so special about it? And the answer will not be slow to wait – bubbles. Small, brisk bubbles.
The secret of soap in the foam?
The secret of soap and other detergents related to surfactants is that they reduce the surface tension of water, thereby enhancing its washing properties. Any soap foam consists of countless soap bubbles, the shell of which is made of water. Particles of dirt, dust and soot adhere to the bubbles, and the foam itself is much easier to wash off under running water.
A similar process is observed when they want to separate ore from waste rock. First, it is placed in soapy foam – the ore simply sinks in water. The bubbles of which the foam is made raise pieces of ore to the surface, resulting in a crust. In other words, soap bubbles not only give a reason to make the child laugh again, but also help people get rid of dirt, and at the same time create a bunch of useful things. I think in this case it would not hurt a person to thank for the fact that he made even soap bubbles work for himself.
So why does it cleanse?
To answer the question “why does soap cleanse?” let’s try to understand the structure of the object of study itself, namely sodium stearate, of which soap consists. And here we will make one surprising discovery: the molecules of synthetic detergents have a long non-polar hydrocarbon radical and a small polar part.
Molecules of surfactants on the boundary surface are located so that the hydrophilic groups are directed into the water, and the hydrophobic are pushed out of it. As a result, the entire surface of the water is covered by a sort of fence of molecules of surface-active substances.
Such a water surface has a lower surface tension, which helps the rapid and complete wetting of contaminated surfaces. By reducing the degree of tension of the surface of the water, its wetting ability increases. The particle coated with surfactant molecules is separated from the surface of the tissue and goes into solution in the form of an emulsion or suspension.
Today, domestic and foreign industries produce a large number of various SMS detergents, in other words, detergents. The correct use of these products depends on your understanding of the washing process itself, as well as the principle itself, which means that different detergents form a different environment.
So, soap particles have enveloping properties, leading to the formation of emulsions of various pollutants and prevent their re-deposition on the surface. They contribute to the retention of insoluble particles in suspension, so that they can subsequently be easily removed with water.